INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN AGRICULTURE ISSN 2305-7246

 

 

 

 

 

 

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International Journal of Modern Agriculture ISSN 2305-7246

 

 

 

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EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZER ON PROTEIN CONTENT AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN MAIZE (HYBRID 704 VAR.) UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS IN TWO YEARS

 

Mehdi Rahimi1,* and Mehdi Ramezani2

 

1Assistant prof. of Plant Breeding, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.

2Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

*Corresponding author (e-mail: mehdi83ra@gmail.com)

 

Abstract

To evaluate the effect of integrated phosphorous fertilizer on the trend of biochemical variations in maize (hybrid 704 var.), an experiment was conducted during 2011 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in a split plot design based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor was drought stress in three levels (control (no drought stress), moderate drought stress and severe drought stress) and subplot factor was phosphorus fertilizer in five levels (control (no fertilizer application), 100% required triple super phosphate (according to soil test), 75% triple super phosphate+biological fertilizer, 50% triple super phosphate+biological fertilizer and 25% triple super phosphate + biological fertilizer). Yield and growth parameters including fresh and dry forage yield, total protein, as well as enzyme components like catalase enzyme, super oxidase, and super oxide dismutase were measured. The results showed a significant effect of phosphorous fertilizer on all measured parameters. The interaction effect of fertilizer and drought stress conditions were only significant on forage yield, catalase, and super oxidase enzymes. The highest fresh forage yield was obtained from 100% triple super phosphate in both experimental years. The catalase, super oxidase, and super oxide dismutase enzymes activities in plant tissue increased as the phosphorous concentration in P fertilizer increased. However, in integrated fertilizer treatments, the enzyme activities were significantly lower. Biological fertilizer application modified the adverse effect of drought stress through decrement of these enzymes activities in the plant tissues. There was a significant and negative correlation between fresh forage yield and all three enzymes activities at drought stress conditions. The highest correlation existed between fresh forage yield and super oxide dismutase enzyme activity in plant at drought condition.

 

Key words: Biological fertilizer, Catalase enzyme, Maize, Drought stress, Forage yield.

 

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ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND WILT OF PEA DISEASE, FINDING THE SOURCE OF RESISTANCE AND ITS MANAGEMENT THROUGH SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE INDUCERS

 

Muhammad Ehetishamul Haq*1, Muhammad Kamran1, Sidra Javed2, Muhammad Idrees1, Shaukat Ali1, Waseem Abbas3, Ayesha Irum4, Huma Abbas2, Abdul Rashid2, Kahkshan Ali5and Muhammad Iqbal1

 

1Plant Pathology Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

         3Vegetable Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

         4Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

         5Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

*Corresponding author (e-mail: haq.uaf@gmail.com)

 

Abstract

Pea (Pisum sativum) is an important fibrous vegetable crop. The present research was designed to assess the edaphic factors involved in wilt of pea progression. Different genotypes were evaluated against wilt disease under field conditions. Comparative efficacy of three different systemic resistance inducers i.e. Salicylic Acid (SA), NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4 were evaluated against the disease at the rate of 1 and 3% under field conditions. Negative linear trend was seen between the AUDPC units and rainfall. With the increase of the rainfall, decrease in disease incidence was observed. Maximum AUDPC units were recorded at 0.0 to 0.2 mm rainfall. Linear positive trend was observed between AUDPC units and the soil temperature, maximum AUDPC units were recorded at 17.0 to 17.25oC. With the increase of sunshine time, increase in AUDPC units was observed, maximum AUDPC units were recorded when sunshine period was between 24750 to 25200 seconds. From seventeen pea genotypes, none was found immune to the disease. Salicylic acid at 3% was found most effective to lower the disease incidence with 7 days interval.

 

Keywords: Pisum sativum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi, Salicylic Acid, Systemic Resistance

 

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