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International Journal of Modern Agriculture ISSN 2305-7246




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Time Series Evaluation of Climate Change on Wheat Crop Production of Pakistan


1Usman Shakoor, 1Mudasar Rashid, 1Muhammad Iftikhar-ul-Hussnain,2 Abdul Rehman, 1Nabila Khurshid


1Comsats University Islamabad, Pakistan.

2Pir Meher Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi .

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



Changing climate has been and will continue to be the primary cause of instability in overall food production. The current study traced out the impact of climate change on one of the major crop of Pakistan i.e. wheat crop by employing vector auto regression (VAR) model. Yearly seasonal data, from 1981 to 2016, available at the Metrological Department of Pakistan and Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan was used. Results confirmed that climate change may influence the wheat crop productions in Pakistan. Simulation scenarios for year 2030 and results from impulse response function and variance decomposition confirmed that mean temperature escalations and increase in rainfall beyond optimal levels will negatively affect wheat crop production. However, the mean minimum temperature has produced positive effects on wheat crop production. In this regard suitable adaptations and mitigation techniques i.e. climatic resistant varieties, water conservation techniques, sowing time adjustments and better knowledge sharing of the climatic risks will certainly help to avoid the disastrous effects.


Key Words: climate change, Green House Gases (GHGs), wheat production, Vector Auto Regression (VAR).





The assessment of supplementary irrigation and spraying of zinc and manganese on chickpea growth and yield in rainfed conditions


Siros Ekhtiari1 and Soheil Kobraee1*


1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



In order to investigate the effects of supplemental irrigation and spraying of zinc and manganese on chickpea growth and yield in rainfed conditions, a field experiment was conducted in 2014. The experimental design was set up in split split plot in randomized complete block with three replications. The phenological stages recorded were: emergence, flowering, 50% flowering, and harvest maturity. At harvest, economic yield and its components, pod, seed and total dry weight, and seed protein content were measured. The Zn and Mn contents were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results indicated that the except for the time for emergence to 50% of flowering (TF50), other studied traits were affected by supplemental irrigation. Foliar treatments did not have a significant effect on the time for emergence to 50% of flowering (TF50), maturity (THM), and 100 seed weight. Spraying treatments and supplemental irrigation increased the concentration of Zn and Mn in leaves and seeds of chickpea. Protein content was decreased in supplementary irrigation and Manganese spraying was more effective in increasing the protein content of seed than that of zinc application. supplementary irrigation compared to rainfed conditions significantly increased dry weight of pods, seeds and total plant, number of pods per plant, number of seed per plant and 100 seed weight, [Zn]leaf, [Zn]seed, [Mn]leaf and [Mn]seedby 67.84%, 82.84%, 51.67%, 60.61%, 81.32%, 20.16%, 47.04%, 33.20%, 36.33% and 36.52%, respectively.


Keywords: chickpea, micronutrient, phenology, rainfed, supplemental irrigation.







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