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International Journal of Modern Agriculture ISSN 2305-7246




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Effects of starch hydrolysates on the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of filled bonbons


Flavia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado1*, Juliana Audi Giannoni1, Paulo Sérgio Marinelli1, Josué Ribeiro de Jesus1, Natalia Conceição dos Santos1, Tamira Miranda Cabral1


1Faculty of Food Technology of Marilia (FATEC). Marilia/SP – Brazil. CEP: 17506-000 – Marília – SP – Brasil.

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



The objective of this study was to use starch hydrolysates - Mylose and Glucomalt - in the fillings of dark and milk chocolate bonbons and check the influence on their physical, chemical and sensory characteristics. Soluble solids, water activity, titratable acidity, moisture and instrumental texture were measured after 0, 15 and 30 days of storage, besides the sensory analysis. The bonbons made with Glucomalt had the variations in the levels of water activity and soluble solids when the storage time was considered. The disruption forces were greater in bonbons with dark chocolate when compared to milk chocolate. The results of the sensory analysis showed that there was a greater variation in the appearance, color and texture attributes between the different chocolates made at time zero, with the dark chocolate samples having the highest scores. After 30 days, however, there was no statistically significant difference between the milk and dark chocolate bonbons. This study presents important results to researches in chocolate manufacturing areas and contribute with sensorial profile and physicochemical parameters collected during the shelf life of products.


Key words: Chocolate; Dark; Stability; Texture.





ISSR markers linked to agronomic traits in okra


El-Sherbeny, G.A.R1, A. G. A Khaled1, H.A. Obiadalla-Ali2 and A. Y.M. Ahmed1*


1Dept. of Genetics, Fac. of Agric., Sohag Univ., Egypt.

2 Dept. of Horticulture, Fac. of Agric., Sohag Univ., Egypt.

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



Ten okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench.) genotypes were evaluated for their agronomic traits and molecular diversity. Four agronomic traits, i.e. number of days to 50% flowering; plant height; number of pods per plant and total yield per plant were evaluated. Amplification of genomic DNA of the ten genotypes using ISSRs. Seven primers generated 40 fragments, of which 15 were polymorphic with an average of 5.71 bands per primer. The amplified products varied in size from 1275 to 170 bp. The level of polymorphism (%P) ranged from 0.00 (UBC-848 and UBC-849) to 75.00 (UBC-840) with an average of 39.29%. The highest polymorphism information content (PIC) value (0.31) was recorded for UBC-825, while the lowest PIC (0.00) were found with UBC-848 and UBC-849 primers.  Genetic similarity values among genotypes varied from 0.714 to 1.00 with an average 0.857. The dendrogram divided the ten genotypes into two clusters; the first main cluster included genotypes Escandrany (P7), Annie Oakley (P8), Dwarf long pod green (P9), Balady (P10) and the second main cluster included the other genotypes. The Mantel test revealed a negative and significant correlation (r = -0.25) between the Jaccard’s similarity matrices of agronomic traits and ISSR markers data.  It could be concluded that, the information of genetic similarities and diversity among okra genotypes are necessary for breeding programs. 


Keywords: Mean performance; heritability; Genetic diversity; ISSR; Abelmoschus esculentus L.







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