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International Journal of Modern Agriculture ISSN 2305-7246




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Effect of various farm manure levels on root proliferation and maize growth under different soil textures


Haroon Shahzad1*, Sana Ullah1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Atif javed1, Sarvet Jehan1, Sajid Hussain2, Ali Raza Siddiqui


1Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

2Department of soil science, University college of Agriculture, University of Sargodha.



The physical indices of the soil are major contributor in growth and yield of the crops. Soil texture is a stable soil physical characteristic that has an indirect impact on the crop growth. Present study aims to evaluate the impact of different textures along with organic amendments on root extension of maize that ultimately affect maize growth. Pot study comprises two soils from Faisalabad and Gujranwala origin that are sandy loam and clay loam, respectively, along with application of farm manure at 0, 5, 10 and 15 Mg ha-1. Recommended dose of NPK at 120: 60: 40 was applied in each treatment pot. A significant difference for plant growth parameters shoot (length, fresh weight and dry weight), root (length, fresh weight and dry weight) and 1000 grain weight was observed for application of organic amendment at different rates under different textures. It was observed that as the organic matter increased there was increase in every plant parameter but upto 10 Mg ha-1 and then a significant decrease was observed. It was also observed that crop performed better under sandy loam texture as compared to clay loam.





 Toxic prospective of some novel chemistry insecticides for resistance echelon in two foremost Lepidopterous insect pests


Abdul Khaliq*1 Hafiz TaswarAbbas2 and Muhammad Hannan Ahmad3


1Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 2Department of Plant pathology, 2University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 3Department of Agricultural Entomology, University College of Agriculture, 3University of Sargodha, Pakistan

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



Resistance development in arthropods is the natural phenomena that is reinforced against any unbalanced revolutionize in the execution of any agro ecosystem. Its intensity has multifold during the management of major crop insect pests. As a result of misuse of the conventional insecticides had not only made them ineffective but also threat for new chemistry insecticides in future. For that purposes a study was planned for toxicity bioassay against two notorious lepidopterous pests as Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura by using nine modern insecticides each replicated thrice with four different concentrations and a control. Response, recorded after 48 hours after application, showed Chlorfenpyr was most effective against S. litura at all concentrations (100, 93, 100,97,87 and 14% mortality) at 330,165,82.5,41.5,20.6 and 0 ppm (Control) while Leufenuron was least effective showing highest susceptibility to armyworm as (53, 53, 47, 40, 27, and 33%) from low to high concentration 50,25,12.5,6.25 and 0 ppm. Similarly Leufenuron was least effectual demonstrated highest susceptibility to heliothis as (67, 70, 47, 40, 27, and 14% mortality) from low to high concentration 50, 25,12.5,6.25 and 0 ppm while Chlorfenpyr was highly efficient against H. armigera at all concentrations (97, 100, 87, 97, 87 and 14% mortality) at 330,165,82.5,41.5,20.6 and 0 ppm (Control) respectively.







Muhammad Amin*1, Haroon Zaman Khan1, Muhammad Rafique Shahzad1, Muhammad Akhtar2, Raza Ullah1 and Habib Ullah1


1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Agronomic Research Station, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



The selection of appropriate sowing method plays a significant role in the placement of seed at proper depth and timely sowing, which ensures better germination and consequent crop growth. An experiment was performed at the Agronomic research station, Bahawalpur, Pakistan to evaluate the response of wheat planted with different methods of sowing (With conventional rabi drill, with coulter drill, broadcast, gup chutt, relay cropping, bed planting and ridge sowing) during 2011-12. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having three replications was used to evaluate the study with plot size of 6m x 9m. Seed rate was used at 125kg/ha for all the treatments and the variety used was Maraj 2008. The recommended dose of NPK was applied. The significant results for germination per square meter (238), productive tillers per square meter (431.0), plant height (106.33cm), spike length (12.47cm), number of grains per spike (48), 1000-grain weight (47), biological yield (12.35 tons ha-1) and grain yield (5.16 tons ha-1) were recorded where wheat seeds were broadcasted in standing cotton (Relay cropping). 




 Biocidal Effect of Medicinal plant Extracts for Eco-Friendly Management of the Dengue Fever Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti


Abdul Khaliq*1 and Muhammad Ahsan2 


1Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

2Department of Agricultural Entomology, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



Aedes aegypti is a notorious insect spreading dengue fever in human being by acting as a vector. Public health problems due to this vector are present all over the world especially in developing countries of Asia like in Pakistan. Insecticides are commonly applied to suppress it population during epidemics. In advances of integrated pest management the use of less persistence, easily degradable and acceptable toxicological effects regarding to human health are being preferred on synthetic insecticides. This study was planned to monitor the effect of plant extracts, Heliotropium indicum and Mukia maderaspatana, on different larval instars of and pupae of mosquito vector A. aegypti. To find the median lethal concentration bio-assay was performed by using acetone solvent. Research showed that plant extracts were successful to suppress the mosquitoes population while, essential compounds were suitable to control the A. aegypti larvae. Results indicated the potential application of these plant extracts for eco-friendly management of A. aegypti with respect to public health hygiene.







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