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International Journal of Modern Agriculture ISSN 2305-7246

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Larvicidal properties of Cassia siamea leaf against Aedes aegypti larvae


P. Pavananundt1, K. Jiraungkoorskul2, P. Kosai3, and W. Jiraungkoorskul*3


1Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand

2Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

3Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



The efficacy of mosquito larvicidal of Cassia siamea leaf aqueous extract was investigated by determining the median lethal concentration, LC50, within 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Additional, the 25% 24-hr LC50 of this extract against the Aedes aegypti larva was investigated after 24 hours exposure by using the histopathological analysis. The histology of the midgut was studied and it was found to be different from the normal larvae such as separation of the epithelial cells from the basement membrane, elongation protruded into its lumen, disruption of the microvilli, appearance several vesicles and cytoplasm masses. This study is the first report of the toxicity and histopathological effects of the C. siamea as a bioinsecticide in the midgut of A. aegypti larvae. The results of this study suggested that the aqueous extract of this leaf had a larvicidal property and it can be used effectively as indigenous mosquito control agents, alternative to conventional chemical mosquito larvicides. FULL TEXT PDF




Alteration in Cytosine DNA Methylation Patterns and Levels Induced by Aluminium Toxicity Stress in Maize Varieties


J. N. Kimatu1,2*, L. Jiang 1, F. Ngezahayo2, C. Songdi1, Y. Quan-yuan3, J. Pang1, B. Liu1


1South Eastern Kenya University (SEKU), Department of Biological Sciences, P.O. Box   170-90200, Kitui, Kenya.

2Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of MOE and Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China

3Ecole Normale Supérieure, B.P. 6983 Bujumbura, Burundi.

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the most critical abiotic stresses which limit crop production in acid soils. The plant epigenome is vulnerable to environmental factors and may become dysregulated under stress conditions. In this study, morphological, physiological and epigenetic changes in DNA cytosine methylation due to Al toxicity and low pH were investigated using a standardized Al-sensitive Kenyan tropical maize (KTM) line against a Chinese temperate maize (CTM) line. Growth responses were measured after 4, 24 and 48 hrs exposure to 200μM Al3+ and at pH 4.5 in MS nutrient solution. Root tolerance indexes (RTi) showed a high Al3+ stress response in KTM while CTM showed a more rapid adjustment response to low pH. A methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis of the CG methylation level range was high at pH 4.5 in KTM but, reached the highest value (5.30%) in CTM at 200μMAl3+. The % CNG methylation level in CTM was 6.76-7.3% compared to 6.03-7.13% in KTM. Isolated and sequenced MSAP variant bands revealed Al3+ toxicity as a primary stress inducer of epigenetic stress regulatory mechanisms. This study provides an alternative possible explanation for the complexity of Al tolerance mechanism from an epigenetic aspect. FULL TEXT PDF






M. Ayub1*, S. A. Ali1, M. Tahir1, Sh. Tahir1, A.Tanveer1, and M. H.Siddiqui2


1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, University of Poonch, Rawalakot , Pakistan

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



Phosphorus unavailability is one of the major factors limiting yield of crops. Phosphorus availability can be enhanced through the use of phosphorus solubilizing bacterial inoculation and it may be helpful in increasing forage yield and improving quality of cluster bean. A field trial to evaluate the role of phosphorus solubilizing bacterial inoculation in combination with phosphorus application on forage yield and quality of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The crop sown with inoculated and un inoculated seeds was given phosphorus at the rate of 37.5, 75, 112.5 and 150 kg/ha. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications, measuring a net plot size 6m x 1.8 m. The application of phosphorus fertilizer significantly affected the yield and yield contributing parameters i.e. plant height, number of branch per plant, leaf area per plant and stem diameter of cluster bean. Among the quality parameter crude protein percentage was the only parameter not influenced significantly by phosphorus applications. The phosphorus solubilizing bacterial inoculation significantly increases the green forage yield by increasing plant height, number of branches per plant and leaf area per plant. The quality parameter i.e. dry matter, crude protein and ash percentage were not influenced significantly by phosphorus solubilizing bacterial inoculation whereas, crude fiber percentage was significantly increased. FULL TEXT PDF




Genetic diversity Assessment in Sugarcane using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)


Smiullah1*, F. A. Khan2, A. Afzal1, Abdullah1, U. Ijaz1, and R. Iftikhar3


1Ayub Agriculture Research Institute Faisalabad.

2Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

3Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



Ten accessions of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)  viz. CP-77-400, CP-72-2086, BF-129, CPF-234, SPF-213, HSF-242, HSF-240, Col.72, Triton and No. 46  were evaluated for twelve characters and genetic diversity investigations were done using Principal component analysis (PCA). The experiment was conducted in triplicated randomized complete block design (RCBD). Analysis of variance portrayed highly significant differences among the accessions for all the traits. In PCA number of millable canes, number of stools per plant and internodal distance contributed positively towards genetic diversity while all other traits had negative contribution, in first two PCs i.e. PC1 and PC2. Most of the varieties showed greater extent of genetic diversity contributed by morphological traits. The cluster having high mean values for yield could be selected for yield per se as well. These results are applicable to parents studied in that particular environment. These parents can be used to produce high cane yielding and better sugar producing varieties of sugarcane. FULL TEXT PDF




Chemical mutagens induced alterations in chlorophyll mutants and flower development of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)


A. Sri Devi, and G. Selvakumar*


Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar-608 002, Tamilnadu, India.

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



An attempt was made to compare variability generated through chemical mutagens in capsicum annuum (L.) var. K1 and to resolve the effects of various concentrations of Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and Diethyl sulfate (DES). Ten levels of EMS (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM) and DES (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mM) and one respective control were used in this study.  The effect of chemical mutagen on mutagenesis of chilli was conducted to determine the optical concentration for lethal dose (LD50) of the plants and also the effects of induced mutation on the morphology of species. The decrease in chilli germination with increasing concentration of both mutagens could be attributed to the occurrence of seeds without completely developed embryos. Chlorophyll mutants are employed as markers for the evaluation of gene action of mutagenic factors in inducing mutation studies and they are the most frequently observed. Observation showed that flower mutants (trimerous instead of pentamerous), two or three flowers per peduncle, genic male sterility, color intensity of petiole and pedicel and chlorophyll mutants were isolated from different treatments. Results obtained showed that the highest germination percentage was 75.3% from the non-treated seeds (control). In general, 40 and 50 mM of EMS and 25 mM DES had negative effect on the flower development of chilli derived from treated plants. FULL TEXT PDF




Effect of sucrose on in vitro callogenesis, embryogenesis and organogenesis of Dendrobium sabin H.


R. Rafique1*, B. Fatima1, M. Usman1 , M. Sh. Iqbal2, S. Z. Ul Hasan1,3, Kh. Shabbir 2 , M. Rasheed1, M. Iqbal1, S. Mushtaq1 and M. Rasheed1


1University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

2Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad.

3 Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute Chakwal

*Corresponding author (e-mail:



Protocorms of dendroboum sabin H were proliferated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0%,1,5%,3%,5%,7%,9%,11% and 13% sucrose to determine the callus growth , embryogenesis and organogenesis  Maximum weight of callus was found to be 365 mg after 20, 40 and 60 days of culture on the medium supplemented with 5% sucrose level. The results showed that there was continuous increase in fresh weight of callus at 20, 40 and 60 days after inoculation.  Maximum callus growth was observed when the sucrose concentration was 5%. Lowest and highest levels of sucrose i.e. 0% and 13% showed no growth. The 5% level of sucrose was found to be the most appropriate for the induction of callus timely and efficiently as well. It was also found that 5% level of sucrose took significantly less days (20 days) to form somatic embryoids. Maximum embryogenesis percentage (100%) was observed at 5% followed by 3% (77.77%) sucrose level. No embryogenesis took place at 0.0% and 13% levels of sucrose. The 1.5%, 9% and 11% resulted in a very poor embryogenesis. The 5% level of sucrose produced significantly more number of shoots. Length of the developed shoots was also significantly high at this level than any other level. FULL TEXT PDF






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